Theory of a 2D Luttinger liquid
Kusmartsev F. V., Luther A., Nersesyan A.
Composite particles arise on two chains in a Luttinger liquid, as in the Chern-Simons theory of the fractional Hall effect. Anderson confinement corresponding to the formation of a ID Luttinger liquid is linked with a pairing of composite particles which occurs along with a Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition. The spectrum of excitations in the regions with confinement consists of the spectrum of a ID Luttinger liquid and some additional two-particle excitations with a gap in the spectrum. These additional excitations correspond to phase-coherent two-particle hops from chain to chain.