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VOLUME 60 | ISSUE 9 | PAGE 649
Aharonov-Bohm effect in the Luttinger liquid
In systems with the spin-charge separation, the period of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillation becomes half of the flux quantum. This effect related at least to the fact that two electrons are needed for the creation of holons (spinons). The effect is illustrated using the example of the Hubbard Hamiltonian with the help of bosonization including topological numbers. It exists also in the Luttinger liquid on two chains. The relation to a fractional UN AB effect, which can be associated with a modified Luttinger liquid, is discussed. © 1994 American Institute of Physics.

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