Condition of asymptotic freedom and temperature of the relict radiation of the universe
Gorelik G.E., Ozernoi L.M.
If the universe has passed through a quantum era of expansion, which was characterized by a Planck temperature Θρ~ 1032 K, then the present-day temperature of the relict radiation is close to the observed one, provided that the equation of state at ultrahigh density is of the form Ρ =(1/3) pc2. This is a strong argument in favor of the hypothesis of asymptotic freedom (exclusion of the interaction of hadrons at short distances). It is also indicated that the Planck length Jp~ 10~33 cm is empirically singled out in comparison with other possible values of the fundamental length.