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VOLUME 90 | ISSUE 8 | PAGE 639
Topological invariant for superfluid 3He-B and quantum phase transitions
G. E. Volovik
Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland
Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 119334 Moscow, Russia


PACS: 71.23.An
Abstract
We consider topological invariant describing the vacuum states of superfluid 3He-B, which belongs to the special class of time-reversal invariant topological insulators and superfluids. Discrete symmetries important for classification of the topologically distinct vacuum states are discussed. One of them leads to the additional subclasses of 3He-B states and is responsible for the finite density of states of Majorana fermions living at some interfaces between the bulk states. Integer valued topological invariant is expressed in terms of the Green's function, which allows us to consider systems with interaction.


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